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PAL: Point, Area, Line Source Algorithm

The Point, Area, and Line Source model (PAL) is an air pollution model based on the gaussian plume assumption. It works on short time intervals (few hours) and with non reactive pollutant. It may consider up to 99 receptor sites and up to 99 sources in each category. It works in very limited areas (few hundreds meters from the sources) and in urban environments, where it can be used for specific areas (e.g., commercial areas, airports). It assumes a flat terrain and may take into account dry deposition and sedimentation.


area: air quality
objectives: simulation
description: gaussian plume, point sources, line sources, area sources, urban environment, inactive pollutant, short term


The model is part of UNAMAP and is available on diskette from:
Computer Products
National Technical Information Service
U. S. Department of Commerce
Springfield, Virginia 22161
Phone (703) 487-4650


William B. Petersen
Meteorology and Assessment Division
Atmospheric Sciences Research Laboratory
Research Triangle Park, NC 27711


  • F.Pasquill, "The Estimation Of The Dispersion Of WindBorne Material". Met. Mag., 90, 33, 49, 1961.
  • F.Pasquill, "Atmospheric Diffusion". John Wiley, New York, 1974.
  • F.Pasquill, "Atmospheric diffusion", 2nd ed. Ellis Horwood, Chichester., 1974.
  • F.Pasquill, "Atmospheric dispersion parameters in gaussian plume modeling part II: possible requirements for change in the Turner workbook values". EPA publication no. epa 600/4-76-030b. U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, research triangle, park, NC., 1976.
  • F.Pasquill, F.B.Smith, "Atmospheric dispersion". Ellis Horwood Limited, New York, 1983.
  • W.B.Petersen "User's guide for PAL- A gaussian plume Algoritm for point, area and line source". EPA publication No. EPA-600/4- 78-013. Office of research and development, Research triangle Park, NC, 1978.
  • K.S.Rao, H.F.Snodgrass, "PAL-DS Model: The PAL Model including deposition and Sedimentation". EPA Publication No. EPA 600/8-82- 023. Office of research and and development, Research triangle Park, NC, 1982.
  • D.B.Turner, "A Diffusion Model For Urban Area". J.Appl.Meteor., 1964.
  • D.B.Turner, "A diffusion model of an urban area", JAPCA 3, pp 83-91, 1964. D.B.Turner, "WORKBOOK OF ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION ESTIMATES", PHS Publication No. 999-AP-26, U. S Enviromental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC., 1969.
  • D.B.Turner, J.R.Zimmerman, A.D.Busse, "An Evaluation of Some Climatological Dispersion Models" In Appendix E, User's Guide to the Climatological Dispersion Model, EPA Publication No. EPA-R4-73-024, 1977.
  • D.B.Turner, J.H.Novak; "User's guide for RAM", Vols I e II. U:S: Enviromental Protection Agency Reports EPA-600/8-78-016 a and b, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1978.



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